Events That Led to the Invention of the Airplane

The invention of airplanes changed the way we travel and also made traveling very comfortable. Airplanes gave us the opportunity to explore different parts of the world. Tackling emergency situations like floods became easier. Airplanes are also an important part of the defense services. The aircraft that we see today can be classified into two types i.e. fixed-wing aircraft and rotatory-wind aircraft. Earlier, in the 18th century, hot air balloons were developed for flight. It was in 1783 that the Montgolfier Brothers built a hot air balloon for the first time. The lack of thrust needed to power the aircraft and absence of navigation tools were the major problems associated with hot air balloons. However, this didn’t stop people from working in the field of airplane development, and eventually, the airplane was invented.
Who Invented the Airplane?

The Wright Brothers from USA invented the first airplane. Wilbur and Orville, the Wright Brothers were born on 16th April, 1867 and 19th August, 1871 respectively. They didn’t continue their education after high school and instead decided to open a bicycle repair shop. They used to study the experiments and research taking place in the field of airplane development. Their interest and passion for airplanes led to the development of the first heavier-than-air plane.
First Airplane to Fly
The Wright Brothers, Wilbur and Orville began working on the idea of building airplanes in 1899. They finally succeeded in flying the first airplane on 17th December, 1903. It was a historic day, since many attempts to manufacture an airplane had earlier met with failure.
Aerodynamics

The period between 1799 and 1809 was important from the point of view of airplane development. The fundamental concepts of aerodynamics were laid by Sir George Cayley, an English baronet. He put forth the idea of inclined planes which were supposed to have rigid wings (for ‘lift’) and a separate propelling mechanism (for ‘thrust’). The basic idea behind developing such planes was to provide a flat surface in order to provide the necessary lift for flying.
Hang Gliders

The work of Otto Lilienthal, a German aeronautical engineer proved to be an inspiration for the Wright Brothers. The hang gliders built by Lilienthal completed many successful flights. However, they lacked a control system fuel-power facility. During these flights, Lilienthal had to swing his torso in order to guide the glider in a particular direction. Lilienthal died in a glider crash in 1896. Wright brothers took up the study of flight and airplanes seriously after this tragic incident.
Hiram Stevens Maxim’s Flying Machine
The flying machine built by Hiram Maxim had a wingspan of 34 m and a total length of 44 m. Two compound 360 hp steam engines were used to power this machine. With all the bulky parts incorporated in the design, this flying machine weighed around 3.5 tons. Tests conducted on this machine revealed that it was aerodynamically unstable and could not be properly controlled. This led to Maxim giving up on his attempts to make the flying machine.
First Airplane Invented

Wilbur and Orville Wright tried to overcome the limitations of Mr. Lilienthal’s hang glider. They also used the concept of inclined planes in their first airplane. They fitted the plane with a 12 horsepower petrol engine and two propellers. The aircraft they had developed was a biplane with two main wings, positioned one above the other. The two wings helped provide a greater lift to the plane. At last, on 17th December, 1903, the first flight of their airplane took place at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in USA; it lasted for 59 seconds. Attaining a height of 120 feet, the plane covered a distance of 852 feet. In all, four flights were taken on that day. Out of these four, the above-mentioned flight was the best. Kitty Hawk was chosen for the flight due to its windy weather and sandhills – which would have acted as cushions in case of a crash.

The wing-warping method was used by Wright Brothers in their first flight. In the wing-warping technique, the wingtips are arched slightly. It facilitates the rolling motion of airplanes and also helps maintain the balance. The plane developed by Wright Brothers had a three-axis control. It rotated along three different axes and in three motions as follows.
Pitch: This motion of the airplane helps in raising and lowering the nose.
Roll: Rotation takes place along the longest axis of the plane in this motion.
Yaw: In this motion of airplane, the horizontal axis is rotated.
The rudder attached at the tail end of the plane served the purpose of navigation. Today’s modern aircraft also follow these fundamentals that were set by the Wright Brothers.

Importance Of Travel And Tourism

Whenever we think of travel, we get images of spending our leisure time at a place, which is far from the hustle and bustle of our normal life, a place which is unique in its own way.

But today, travel and tourism is related not only to holidaying but has also emerged as one of the major industries of the world and generator of jobs.

It is the nation’s third largest retail sales industry. The economic, social and cultural benefits that tourism brings to the local community are commendable.

In India there are many places that attract tourists and hence there are some requirements to promote tourism. First and foremost, there should be a peaceful atmosphere in the country. Secondly, there should be enough facilities for accommodation, transportation and sufficient tourist attractions.

Thirdly, effective machinery is necessary to give wide publicity relating to tourist attractions and the authorities are taking steps towards the promotion of tourism for e.g. a number of star hotels have been constructed by the Indian Tourism Development Corporation and the Tourist Development Corporations in the states. The mass media are made use of, to popularize and publicize the names of various places that have tourist attractions. It should happily be noted that the Government of India has decided to run a few tourist trains on some important routes. This may mitigate the hardships of the tourists to some extent.

A nation can reap many advantages fro tourism. Thus, tourism continues to grow at a steady rate nationally, despite a few stormy clouds on an otherwise stable economic horizon. Locally, the visitor industry is poised for a continued strong year in the coming years.

Travel Abroad for Volunteer Jobs

Travelling abroad is a great way to learn and experience things you cannot find them in your own country. But traveling is hectic and needs a lot of preparations and arrangements. To make your traveling easy, fun and beneficial, consider traveling abroad as a volunteer with other volunteers. This is a great way to go to an interesting place in the world and earn experience, help others and work on sustainable projects. This offer seems to be very enticing as it comprises of many benefits. For your travel expenses and arrangements you can contact with any good NGO and register yourself as an interested volunteer. Once you are accepted, you will be sent to any of the African countries or others to join projects opened for the welfare of the locals.

How to Start Your Planning

In order to go to a place in Africa where you can join volunteer programs easily, start planning for your travel in advance. It is good that you start a few months before. First you look for charity organizations that are actively working and providing people in Africa with their services. These organizations are well-organized and can arrange groups of volunteers and dispatch them to those places where their assistance is needed.  One of these NGOs is Thrive Africa. Their packages are versatile and you have the opportunity to get yourtravel expenses funded by sponsors. While you register for the volunteer programs, check the detailed information where to go and what programs to join. Collect information about the local weather of the place you want to go and find about culture of the people as well. Advance planning saves you from wasting precious time. You can make the best use of ample time with you and choose the programs of your choice to join.

Browse the Website to Find Inspiration

Your travel abroad is a serious and purposeful program.  But if you feel anytime that you are losing faith and you need inspiration which sometime happens because of anxiety,. Thrive Africa has interesting videos of volunteer work and reviews of enthusiastic travelers on the website that can be quite inspiring. You can share these videos with friends and family to check if anyone else also wants to company you abroad. Your volunteering can be fun, rewarding and memorable with great experience of work and visiting new places in Africa.

Harbin Ice Festival Travel Tips

The Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival, commonly known as Harbin Ice Festival, mainly consist of four theme parks: Harbin Ice and Snow World, Sun Island International Ice and Snow Sculpture Art Expo, Harbin Ice Lantern Show, and Songhua River Ice and Snow Happy Valley. Being a tourist brand name of Harbin, the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang province, People’s Republic of China, the festival draws millions of tourists every winter.

Locations of the Theme Parks

1. Harbin Ice and Snow World Location
West side of Sun Island, Songbei District, Harbin (near Heilongjiang Science and Technology Museum)

2. Ice Lantern Fair Location
The fair is located in Zhaolin Park, at the northern end of Zhaolin Street in Daoli District. The address is No. 74 Friendship Road (Youyi Lu), Daoli District, Harbin

3. Sun Island International Snow Sculpture Are Expo Location
No.3 Jingbei Road, Sun Island Scenic Area, Songbei District, Harbin

4. Songhua River Ice and Snow Happy Valley Location
On Songhua River (near the Flood Control Monument and Tongjiang Street)

Best Time to Visit
The festival officially starts on Jan 5 and ends at Feb. 25 every year. If go to Harbin for the festival, try to avoid the weekends and Chinese New Year if possible.

Things to do
You can find many things to do during Harbin Ice Festival, including watch ice/snow sculptures and buildings, ice lanterns, winter swimming performance, go skiing/snowboarding, dog/horse sledding, ice spinning, and ice sailing, experience ice restaurants and ice bars, or have a safari-style Siberian tigers watching trip etc.

What to wear in Harbin Ice Festival
1. Belt /Pants /Socks /Underwear

2. Sweater/Gloves/Winter Hat/Winter Jacket/ Scarves

3. Silk or other long underpants, t-shirts or camisoles for carrying money and important documents

4. Fanny Pack/Purse /Money Belt /Wallet

5. Security pouch for valuable documents

How to get there
The best way to get to Harbin is by air via some China’s major cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjing, Nanjing and Guangzhou.

Where to ski in Harbin
Harbin and its surrounding areas have many ski resorts with excellent facilities. Tourists can go skiing in these places: Yabuli Ski Resort, Longzhu Erlongshan Ski Resort, Yabuli Sunshine Holiday Village Ski Resort, Harbin Institute Of Physical Education Skifield, Jihua Changshou Mountain Ski
Resort, Yawangsi Ski Resort, Huatian Wumiji Ski Resort, Pingshan Shenlu Ski Resort, Mingdu Ski Field, Fanqi Shangjing International Ski Resort, Window Of Eurasian Ski Field, Harbin Moon Bay Ski Field, Ice And Snow World Ski Field, Yuquan International Hunting Ground Ski Resort, Weihu Mountain National Forest Park Ski Resort, Xudong Lantian Ski Resort.

Suggested 3-day Harbin Ice Festival Tour

Day 1 Arrival in Harbin
Upon arrival at Harbin airport, you are met and transferred to the hotel (check in if room available). Free at leisure for the rest of the day.

Day 2 Harbin
Today we will start tour to visit the largest Orthodox Church in the Far East – St. Sofia Church. And then free walk through the Central Street. On the streets, you can find some facts about Harbin’s history and culture. Continue tour to visit the Sun Island Park, where the Sun Island Snow Sculpture Art Expo is held every winter and you can see various awesome snow sculptures featuring different cultures. Later transfer to the Siberian Tiger Park, where we’re caged in a specially protected bus to see the tigers and lions. In the afternoon, transfer to visit the highlights of the Harbin Ice Festival – Ice and Snow World Park where you stroll through this winter wonderland, marvel at the magnificent exquisitely-detailed, gigantic ice sculptures. View fabulous creations of notable buildings and monuments of different architectural types and styles, figures of animals, people, mythical creatures, ice slides and lanterns. When evening sets in, multicolored lights illuminate the sculptures, creating a breathtaking display of these icy works of art.

Day 3 Depart Harbin
In the morning, visit the Stalin Park. The park stands as evidence of the friendship between the world’s two most powerful communist countries at that time. At the center of Stalin Park stands the Flood Control Monument built to commemorate the tremendous feat of the Harbin people in controlling the massive flood of 1957. You will watch winter swimming performance on Songhua River. And you may choose to take part in some ice activities with own expense, such as ice sloping, dog-sled (about RMB30/pp, US$5 per time), etc. After that, transfer to the airport for the flight back to your sweet home.